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Mitochondrial respiratory chain composition and organization in response to changing oxygen levels
Alba Timón-Gómez and Antoni Barrientos
Engineering polymersomes for intracellular biopharmaceutics delivery
Min Qiu and Chao Deng
Cell size dependent migration of T-cells latently infected with HIV
Kathrin Bohn-Wippert and Roy D. Dar
Glutamine diet supplementation prevents obesity through inhibiting inflammation
Ying Yang
EDITORIAL: The new age of the PhD: Transforming the PhD from a product to a process
Lakshanie Carmen Wickramasinghe and Jessica Geraldine Borger
Editorial: Vaccine Hesitancy
Michelle A. Linterman
Combining immune checkpoint blockade with ErbB targeted therapies for cancer treatment
Zhida Liu, Chuanhui Han, Yang-Xin Fu
The Emerging Role of Mitophagy in Kidney Diseases
Divya Bhatia, Mary E. Choi
Regulation and New Treatment Strategies in Breast Cancer
Rosa-Maria Ferraiuolo, Kay-Uwe Wagner
Epigenetic Regulation of Cardiac Development and Disease through DNA Methylation
Yahui Lan and Todd Evans
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Author(s)
Alba Timón-Gómez and Antoni Barrientos

Institute
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
Address
Departmentof Neurology and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Miami Miller School ofMedicine, Miami, FL 33136
Abstract:

Mitochondria are the major consumer of oxygen in eukaryotic cells, owing to the requirement of oxygen to generate ATP through the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) and the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). This aerobic energy transduction is more efficient than anaerobic processes such as glycolysis. Hypoxia, a condition in which environmental or intracellular oxygen levels are below the standard range, triggers an adaptive signaling pathway within the cell. When oxygen concentrations are low, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) become stabilized and activated to mount a transcriptional response that triggers modulation of cellular metabolism to adjust to hypoxic conditions. Mitochondrial aerobic metabolism is one of the main targets of the hypoxic response to regulate its functioning and efficiency in the presence of decreased oxygen levels. During evolution, ....


Author(s)
Min Qiu and Chao Deng

Institute
Tufts University, USA, Soochow University, China
Address
Tufts University, 4 Colby Street, Medford, MA 02155, USA.
Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China.
Abstract:

Biopharmaceutics, such as proteins, nucleic acids, antibodies, have emerged as promising candidates for the treatment of a variety of diseases due to their high specificity and greater bioactivity. However, the intrinsic low biological stability and poor cell membrane penetration ability of biopharmaceutics has largely hindered their utility. Developing efficient cytosolic delivery platforms is, therefore of vital importance to overcome these hurdles and to advance the clinical translation of biopharmaceutic-based therapy. Polymersomes have emerged as superb nanovesicles for sophisticated biophamraceutic delivery, owing to their hydrophobic membranes to protect proteins from enzymatic degradation and vast watery cores for protein loading. This perspective summarizes the current design and applications of polymersomes for the intracellular delivery of therapeutic biopharmaceutics.


Author(s)
Kathrin Bohn-Wippert and Roy D. Dar

Institute
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Address

1406 West GreenStreet, Urbana, IL 61801, USA, 1206W Gregory Drive,Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.

Abstract:

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preferentially infects T-lymphocytes by integrating into host DNA and forming a latent transcriptionally silent provirus.  As previously shown, HIV-1 alters migration modes of T-lymphocytes by co-regulating viral gene expression with human C-X-C chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4). Here, we show that motility of infected T-lymphocytes is cell size dependent. In cell migration assays, migrating cells are consistently larger than non-migrating cells. This effect is drug-treatment independent. The cell size dependent motility observed in a previously generated Jurkat latency model correlates with the motility of primary human CD4+ T-cells containing a modified HIV-1 full-length construct JLatd2GFP. In addition, large migrating T-cells, latently infected with HIV, show a slightly decreased rate of reactivation from latency. these results demonstrate that HIV reactivation is cell migration-dependent, where host cell size acts as a catalyst for altered migration velocity. We believe that host cell size controlled migration uncovers an additional mechanism of cellular controlled viral fate determination important for virus dissemination and reactivation from latency. This observation may provide more insights into viral-host interactions regulating cell migration and reactivation from latency and helps in the design and implementation of novel therapeutic strategies.


Author(s)
Ying Yang

Institute
University of California, Irvine
Address
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry; School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA

Author(s)
Lakshanie Carmen Wickramasinghe and Jessica Geraldine Borger

Institute
Monash University
Address
Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and HealthSciences, Monash University
Abstract:

In science, technology, engineering, mathematics and medical (STEMM) discipline, one in three students graduate with a PhD, with the number of annual PhD completions doubling each year in most Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Although many will start off as postdoctoral researchers, PhD graduates still hugely outnumber the demand for postdoctoral researchers. And those that successfully attain this position are quickly thrown into a harsh climate of ‘publish or perish’. As our world continues to grow scientifically and technologically, our communities need to become more literate in these fields to successfully compete within a knowledge-based economy.  Universities are responding with a push towards skills development in doctorate programs, through the integration of transferable skills and a move to mainstreaming doctoral research portfolios.

 
 
     
 
 
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